Fractures, Sprains, and Strains to Upper and Lower Extremities

Fracture:  broken bone ranging from thin crack to complete break. A bone can fracture crosswise, lengthwise, in several places and/ or into many pieces.

Sprain:  injury to a ligament (tissue that connects two or more bones at a joint) which can be stretched or torn.

Strain:  injury to a muscle or tendon that connects muscle to bone which can be stretched or torn.

Potential treatments include: Physical therapy will vary depending on the specificity and degree of the injury. Treatment to minimize swelling and pain, and promote function may include: therapeutic exercises to strengthen and stretch the muscles surrounding the affected joint, joint mobilization techniques, postural realignment therapy, joint bracing, wedged orthoses, walking aids, manual therapy, home-based exercises, strength training, joint stability training, Class IV laser, electrical stimulation, ultrasound, and vibration electric stimulation (Hivamat 200).